Полоцкий государственный университет

Полоцкий
государственный
университет

ВЕСТНИК ПГУ. №9. СЕРИЯ А. ГУМАНИТАРНЫЕ НАУКИ. 2013г.

ИСТОРИЧЕСКИЕ НАУКИ

Шыдлоўскі С.А. Сістэма рацыянальнага гаспадарання ў рабоце Ганны Цюндзявіцкай «Літоўская гаспадыня»

Разглядаюцца прынцыпы і метады вядзення памешчыцкай гаспадаркі, якія выкладзены ў кнізе Ганны Цюндзявіцкай «Gospodyni litewska». Прасочваюцца замежныя тэарэтычныя ўплывы на фарміраванне айчыннай мадэлі рацыянальнага гаспадарання. Як крыніца магчымых канцэптуальных запазычанняў у кнізе Г. Цюндзявіцкай разглядаецца праца Альбрэхта Тэера «Grunds?tze der rationellen Landwirthschaft», тэарэтычныя падыходы «камеральных навук», а таксама вызначаюцца паралелі паміж развагамі аўтаркі «Gospodyni litewska» і работамі К. Кантрыма і Е. Тышкевіча. Раскрываюцца асноўныя прынцыпы арганізацыі працы ў памешчыцкім двары на падставе аналізу рэкамендацый Г. Цюндзявіцкай. Аналізуюцца элементы сістэмы ўліку і кантролю ў памешчыцкім маёнтку. Выяўляюцца асноўныя гаспадарчыя бакі функцыянавання памешчыцкай гаспадаркі. Вылучаюцца галоўныя віды працоўных зон на памешчыцкім двары, а таксама вызначаецца яго падзел на вытворчыя сектары. Абгрунтоўваецца ўтапічны характар мадэлі «ідэальнай гаспадаркі» Цюндзявіцкай.

THE SYSTEM OF GOOD HOUSEKEEPING IN THE WORKS BY HANNA TSYUNDYAVITSKAYA “LITHUANIAN MISTRESS”

S. SHYDLOUSKI

The principles and methods of landlord economy, as set out in the book by H. Tsyundyavitskaya “Gospodyni litewska” are considered. Foreign influence on the theoretical model of the formation of the national good housekeeping is traced. As a source of possible conceptual borrowing in the book by H. Tsyundyavitskaya the work of Albrecht Thaer “Grunds?tze der rationellen Landwirthschaft”, theoretical approaches of “cameral sciences” are examined, and parallels between the author’s reasoning in “Gospodyni litewska” and works by K. Kantrym and E. Tyshkevich are identified. The basic principles of the organization of work in the landlords’ courts on the basis of the analysis of H. Tsyundyavitskaya’s recommendations are revealed. The elements of the system of accounting and control in the estates are analyzed. The main economic aspects of the functioning of landlord economy are revealed. The main types of work zones on country estates are singled out, and its division into productive sectors is defined. The utopian model of “perfect economy” of H. Tsyundyavitskaya is grounded.

Кежа Ю.М. Княжацкая ўлада на беларускіх землях ІХ – першай паловы ХІІІ стагоддзя ў беларускай і расійскай гістарыяграфіі

Разгледжаны асноўныя працы беларускіх і расійскіх гісторыкаў XVIII – пачатку ХХІ стагоддзя, прысвечаныя даследаванню працэса станаўлення і развіцця дзяржаўнасці і княжацкай улады на беларускіх землях у кантэксце палітычнай гісторыі і дзяржаўнага ладу Старажытнай Русі ІХ – першай паловы ХІІІ стагоддзя. Гісторыя станаўлення інстытутаў палітычнай улады – аб’ект шматгадовых, складаных дыскусій. У розныя перыяды існавання расійскай і беларускай гістарычнай навукі інстытут княжацкай улады разглядаўся пад рознымі пунктамі погляду ў залежнасці ад грамадскіх прыярытэтаў перыяду, у якім працавалі даследчыкі, яго сацыяльных, палітычных і эканмічных складнікаў.

PRINCELY POWER ON BELARUSIAN LANDS OF THE IXTH – FIRST HALF OF THE XIIITH CENTURY IN BELARUSIAN AND RUSSIAN HISTORIOGRAPHY

JU. KEZHA

The main works of Belarusian and Russian historians of the XVIIIth – the early XXIth centuries are considered, which are devoted to researches of the process of establishing and developing of the statehood and princely power in the context of political history and political system of Ancient Russia of the IXth – the first half of the XIIIth century. In different periods of Russian and Belarusian historical science the institute of princely power was considered from different points of view according to civic priorities of the period of work of a researcher and his social, political and economical components.

Янченко В.В. Реконструкция фортификаций детинца древнерусского Киева

Исследуются вопросы исторической реконструкции древнерусских укреплений киевского детинца. Изучение этой проблемы является одной из самых важных задач при реконструировании средневекового города. Основные источники воссоздания конструктивных особенностей фортификаций «города Владимира» – археологически зафиксированные остатки укреплений Киева и других городов Киевской Руси. Источниковедческой базой исследования послужили не только материалы археологических раскопок, но и письменные свидетельства летописей, картографические материалы с активным использованием общеевропейских аналогов. Детально изучены основные элементы городских укреплений: вал, ров и наземные деревянные конструкции – заборола. Выделены отдельные конструктивные типы отмеченных элементов. Используя комплексный анализ всей существующей на сегодня информации, характеризующей древнерусские укрепления, решается задача исторической реконструкции древнерусских фортификационных укреплений в реальном масштабе.

RECONSTRUCTION OF THE CITADEL FORTIFICATIONS IN OLD RUSSIAN KIEV

V. YANCHENKO

The issues of reconstruction of the Old Russian fortifications of the Kiev citadel are studied. It is one of the most important issues in the reconstruction of a medieval city. Archaeological remains of the fortifications in Kiev and other cities of Old Russian Kiev are the main sources used in the reconstruction of the “Vladimir’s city”. Besides the archaeological data, this study is based on written records, maps and analogies across Medieval Europe. The main components of the city fortifications, rampart, ditch and wooden constructions that were built above the ground, were analyzed and classified. Complex analysis of the available data solves the problem of the real-scale reconstruction of the Old Russian fortifications.

Соловьев А.А. К вопросу о реконструкции исторической топографии Экимани

Демонстрируются результаты обобщения архитектурно-археологического изучения Экимани. История поселения прослежена в хронологическом порядке, при этом описаны обстоятельства и время её возникновения и развития как древнего посада Полоцка. Приводятся сведения местных старожилов об уличной сети, описывается её формирование с наложением на современную геодезическую съёмку. Приводятся данные о появлении и развитии имения Экимань. Предлагается описание и частичная реконструкция построек на основе имеющихся натурных остатков. Проведена попытка их датировки и хронологии возведения, выявлены конструктивные особенности. Представлены собранные нами сведения о развитии Экимани в советское время.

TO THE ISSUE OF RECONSTRUCTION OF THE HISTORICAL TOPOGRAPHY OF THE VILLAGE EKIMAN

A. SOLOVYOV

This study presents the results of the generalization of the architectural and archaeological research of the village Ekiman. The history of this settlement is traced in chronological order, with the described circumstances and the time of its origin and development as the ancient trade and industrial part of Polotsk, located behind the fortification wall, which was called “posad” at that time. This paper also provides information of the local old residents about the street network and offers the description of its formation, superimposed on the modern geodetic survey. The paper gives some data on the origin and development of the estate Ekiman, offers the description and partial reconstruction of buildings on the basis of the available full-size remains. An attempt of their dating and construction chronology, identification of their design features has been made. The information about the development of the village Ekiman in Soviet times is also collected in this work.

Ледник В.А. К вопросу о вхождении Полоцка в состав Золотой Орды

Представлена версия захвата Полоцка татарами после нападения войск Батыя на Смоленское княжество в 1239 году. Рассматривается отечественная и зарубежная историография по вопросу вхождения города Полоцка в состав Золотой Орды и передвижения войск Батыя в Северо-Западной Руси. Анализируются причины выхода Полоцка из-под влияния Золотой Орды на основе последних открытий в политической истории Золотой Орды и археологических находок в Полоцке. Сделан вывод о том, что предложенную версию возможного нашествия татар на полоцкие земли во время похода Батыя следует признать небезосновательной.

TO THE QUESTION OF ASSUMPTION OF POLOTSK BY THE GOLDEN HORDE

V. LEDNIK

The version of the occupation of Polotsk by the Tatars after the attack of Baty’s troops to the Smolensk principality in 1239 is presented. Foreign historiography and the historiography of our country over the problem of Polotsk joining the Golden Horde and the movement of the troops of Baty in the North-Western Russia are considered. The reasons of the withdrawal of Polotsk from the influence of the Golden Horde, based on recent researches in the political history of the Golden Horde and the archaeological findings in Polotsk are analyzed. Conclusion is drawn that the proposed version of the possible Tatar attack on Polotsk lands during Baty’s campaign should be acknowledged as not unfounded.

Якубаў В.У. Інфлянцкая кампанія войска Вялікага Княства Літоўскага 1608 – 1609 гадоў

Дэманструецца даследаванне па ўдакладненні і апісанні раней маладаследаванай у сусветнай гістарыяграфіі ваеннай кампаніі войска Вялікага Княства Літоўскага. Аналізуецца склад удзельнікаў і крыніцы фінансавання баявых дзеянняў 1608 – 1609 гадоў супраць шведаў у Інфлянтах. Разгядаюцца тактычныя і псіхалагічныя прыёмы вайсковага кіраўніцтва, якія дазаволілі, з аднаго боку, выканаць тактычныя і стратэгічныя задачы кампаніі, а з іншага – сталі пралогам для Гарадзенскай канфедэрацыі 1609 – 1610 гадоў, у склад якой упершыню ў айчыннай гісторыі ўвайшоў вялікі гетман Княства Літоўскага.

THE CAMPAIGN OF GRAND DUCHY OF LITHUANIA AGAINST INFLANTY IN 1608 – 1609

V. YAKUBAU

The specification and description of the little explored in the world historiography campaign of Grand Duchy of Lithuania troops are presented. The composition of the participants and the sources of financing of military operations in 1608 – 1609 against the Swedes in Inflanty is analyzed. Psychological, tactical and military leadership techniques are considered, which allowed on the one hand to perform tactical and strategic objectives of the campaign, and on the other, became a prologue to the Grodno Confederation of 1609 – 1610, which the great hetman of GDL joined for the first time in the Belarusian history.

Барташэвіч А.Ю. Гісторыя каталіцкіх ордэнаў на беларускіх землях у другой палове XVII стагоддзя: місіянерства і культурна-асветніцкая дзейнасць

Разглядаецца гісторыя з’яўлення і дзейнасці каталіцкіх місій на беларускіх землях у другой палове XVII стагоддзя. Ваенныя падзеі 1649 – 1667 гадоў і дзяржаўная падтрымка каталіцтва прывяла да рэзкага павелічэння колькасці каталіцкіх прыходаў, у Вялікім Княстве Літоўскім былі запрошаны новыя каталіцкія ордэны. У гэты перыяд каталіцкія місіі дамінуюць у сферы адукацыі і асветы, займаюцца дабрачыннасцю: адчыняюцца новыя калегіумы, пашыраецца школьная сетка, з’яўляюцца першыя шпіталі. Каталіцкае святарства выступала ініцыятарам і арганізатарам агульнагарадскіх урачыстасцей, прысвечаных важным дзяржаўным падзеям і рэлігійным святам, удзел у якіх прымалі гараджане ўсіх веравызнанняў.

THE HISTORY OF THE CATHOLIC ORDERS ON THE BELARUSIAN LANDS IN THE SECOND HALF OF 17th CENTURY: THEIR MISSIONS AND THE CULTURAL-EDUCATIONAL ACTIVITIES

A. BARTASHEVICH

The history of the appearance and the activities of the catholic missions on the Belarusian lands in the second half of 17th century is considered. Military events of 1649 – 1667 and the state support of the Catholicism led to the sharp increase of the catholic parishes, the new Catholic orders were invited to the GDL. In that period of time the catholic missions were dominant in the sphere of education, provided charity: the new collegiums, schools and hospitals were opened. The Catholic priests held the celebrations that were dedicated to the important state and religious events, in which citizens of different confessions took part.

Апанович К.О. Иерусалимский патриарх Феофан и восстановление православной иерархии 1620 года в Речи Посполитой: религиозный и политический аспекты

Исследуется деятельность Иерусалимского патриарха Феофана (1570 – 1644) в Речи Посполитой, в которой доминирующей была религиозная цель – сохранение и укрепление православной церкви в Речи Посполитой, политическая же цель являлась второстепенной и была подчинена цели религиозной. Восстановление православной иерархии патриархом Феофаном привело к укреплению православной церкви и временной стабилизации межконфессиональных отношений. Нежелание правительства Речи Посполитой закрепить позитивные изменения на государственном уровне явилось причиной усиления контактов православной Киевской митрополии с русским правительством и Московским патриархатом в 20-е годы XVII столетия.

PATRIARCH OF JERUSALEM THEOPHAN AND RESTORATION OF ORTHODOX HIERARCHY OF 1620 IN THE POLISH-LITHUANIAN COMMONWEALTH: RELIGIOUS AND POLITICAL ASPECTS

Ch. APANOVICH

The article is dedicated to the activity implemented by Theophan (1570 – 1644), Patriarch of Jerusalem in the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth. The ordination of the Orthodox hierarchy led to inner consolidation of the Orthodox Church and temporary stabilization of interconfessional relatons in the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth. Reluctance of government to legitimate positive changes caused intensification of contacts between the Orthodox Kiev metropolitanate, Russian government and Moscow patriarchate in the twenties of the 17th century. Билецкий А.С. Эпизоотическое состояние Гродненской губернии в 1805 – 1860 годах Представлено комплексное исследование истории становления ветеринарии Гродненской губернии в первой половине XIX века. Опираясь на статистический материал, показан уровень её эпизоотического состояния, характеризующий особенности формирования и основные направления развития ветеринарной работы в губернии, в частности динамика численности заболевших и павших сельскохозяйственных животных за период с 1825 по 1860 годы от наиболее опасных и распространенных заразных заболеваний. Приводятся сведения об их количественном соотношении, устанавливаются основные причины, нанесенный ущерб и определяется масштаб распространения этих заболеваний. Предпринимается попытка анализа приведенных статистических данных. Замечено, что ветеринарно-санитарная работа в Гродненской губернии в первой половине XIX века имела ряд проблем. Доказывается, что на результат деятельности ветеринарии не влияло количество задействованного персонала.

EPIZOOTIC CONDITION OF GRODNO PROVINCE IN 1805 – 1860

A. BILETSKI

A comprehensive study of the history of veterinary science of Grodno province in the first half of the XIXth century is presented. Relying on the statistical material, the level of epizootic state of Province, characterizing features of the formation and the main directions of development of veterinary work in Grodno province is shown, in particular, the dynamics of the number of diseased and dead farm animals during the period from 1825 to 1860 from the most dangerous and widespread infectious diseases, information on their quantitative ratio is provided, the basic causes and damage are established, and the the scale of spreading of these diseases is defined. An attempt is made to analyze the given statistical data. It has been noticed, that veterinary and sanitary work in Grodno province in the first half of the XIXth century faced a number of problems. It is proved, that the quantity of the personnel didn’t influence the result of the veterinary activity.

Гончаров Н.Н. Функции официальных институтов Российской православной церкви в становлении и развитии западнорусской ветви российского монархизма (1895 – 1914)

Аргументируется современное концептуальное видение институционализации монархического движения в Северо-Западном крае Российской империи конца XIX – начала ХХ века. Определены функции православных церковно-общественных организаций в развитии монархического движения. Обосновывается формирование западнорусской ветви российского монархизма. Освещается дифференциация монархических организаций на политический, социальный и православно-русский духовный монархизм по направлениям общественной жизни. Показан раскол монархического движения на дворянско-аристократическое и народно-крестьянское направления по социально-классовому признаку. Раскрыты тенденции перманентной монархической радикализации и интеграции праворадикалов в социальную систему Северо-Западного края, являвшуюся элементом общественной сверхсистемы Российской империи.

FUNCTIONS OF OFFICIAL INSTITUTIONS OF THE RUSSIAN ORTHODOX CHURCH IN FORMATION AND DEVELOPMENT OF WESTERN RUSSIAN BRANCH OF RUSSIAN MONARCHISM (1895 – 1914)

N. GONCHAROV

The contemporary conceptual vision of the institutionalization of the Russian monarchism in the northwest province of the Russian Empire in the late 19th – early 20th century is argued. The functions of the orthodox church and social organizations in the development of the monarchist movement are defined. The formation of the Western Russian branch of Russian monarchism is grounded. The monarchist organizations differentiation on political, social and Russian Orthodox Christian monarchism in areas of public life is covered. The split of monarchist movement on aristocratic and people-peasant areas according to the social and class feature is shown. Trends of perpetual monarchical radicalization and integration of radical right-wingers in the social system of the Northwestern land are revealed, which is the element of public supersystem of the Russian Empire.

Кулабухова Е.В. Белорусское православное духовенство на защите российского самодержавия в 1905 году

Рассматриваются вопросы, связанные с позицией белорусского православного духовенства по отношению к политике российского самодержавия, описываются методы борьбы православной церкви с начавшейся революцией, а также раскрываются некоторые причины массовых отпадений от православия в революционном 1905 году. Несмотря на то, что в начале XX века основная часть православных священнослужителей была прочно связана с существующей государственной системой, влияние православной церкви на народные массы накануне революции 1905 – 1907 годов все еще оставалось существенным. Однако события «кровавого воскресенья» подорвали веру в царя и стали началом революции, в борьбу с которой включился весь аппарат царской власти. Православная церковь использовала различные методы в борьбе с революцией, но массовые отпадения от православия в 1905 году стали подтверждением того, что по разным причинам влияние «господствующей» церкви постепенно ослабевало.

BELARUSIAN ORTHODOX CLERGY IN THE DEFENSE OF RUSSIAN AUTOCRACY IN 1905

E. KULABUHOVA

The issues related to the position of the Belarusian Orthodox clergy against the policy of the Russian autocracy are considered, the methods of struggle of the Orthodox Church with the revolution are described, and also some of the causes of mass falling away from Orthodoxy in the revolutionary year 1905 are revealed. Despite the fact that in the early XXth century most of the Orthodox clergy was strongly associated with the existing state system, the influence of the Orthodox Church on people on the eve of the revolution of 1905 – 1907 was still significant. But the events of “bloody Sunday” undermined confidence in the king and were the beginning of the revolution, the struggle, into which the entire apparatus of royal power was involved. The Orthodox Church used a variety of methods to fight against the revolution, but the mass falling from the Orthodox Church in 1905 confirmed that for various reasons the influence of “dominant” church gradually weakened.

Самосюк Н.В. Миссионерская деятельность Православной церкви в Полесской епархии (1921 – 1939)

Рассмотрена миссионерская деятельность Православной церкви на территории Полесской епархии в 1921 – 1939 годах. Показана главная задача епархиального и районных миссионерских комитетов – сохранение численности православного населения. Православные миссионеры вынуждены были одновременно противодействовать активной агитации со стороны представителей нетрадиционных религиозных организаций, сдерживать распространение униатства, бороться с проявлениями атеизма среди молодёжи. Для обсуждения различных вопросов миссионерского характера, обмена опытом, выработки новых методов работы проводились специальные собрания, конференции, курсы. Церковные власти привлекали к миссионерской работе православное население. Сделан вывод о том, что миссионерская деятельность во многом способствовала совершенствованию душпастырской работы духовенства и сохранению традиций и устоев церковно-приходской жизни православного населения Полесской епархии.

MISSIONARY ACTIVITY OF THE ORTHODOX CHURCH IN THE POLESSKAYA EPARCHY (1921 – 1939)

N. SAMOSIUK

Missionary work of the Orthodox Church on the territory of Polesskaya eparchy in 1921 – 1939 is considered. The main task of the diocesan and district missionary committees was to preserve the number of the Orthodox population. Orthodox missionaries were forced to simultaneously counteract the active campaigning by representatives of non-traditional religious organizations to contain the spread of uniatism, combat manifestations of atheism among the young. To discuss various issues of missionary character, exchange experiences, develop new ways of working special meetings, conferences, courses were organized. Church officials attracted the orthodox population to the missionary work. Missionary activity has greatly contributed to the improvement of pastoral work of the clergy and to preservation of the traditions and practices of parochial life of the orthodox population of Polesskaya eparchy.

Курусканова Н.П. Бундовцы в Сибири в начале XX века

Дается характеристика социал-демократической партии Бунд, сформировавшейся на западных окраинах Российской империи. Анализируется пребывание бундовцев в сибирской ссылке, деятельность беглых политссыльных бундовцев в рядах сибирских организаций РСДРП. Рассмотрен процесс появления в Сибирском регионе по инициативе ссыльных организаций Бунда в начале XX века. Изложены биографии видных бундовцев, внесших вклад в освободительное движение, как в европейской части России, так и в Сибири. Показан вклад сосланных в Сибирь бундовцев и членов местных организаций этой партии в общественно-культурную и политическую жизнь края в начале XX века.

MEMBERS OF BUND IN SIBERIA IN THE BEGINNING OF THE XXth CENTURY

N. KURUSKANOVA

The characteristic of social-democratic party Bund, which has generated on the western surburbs of Russian empire is given. Stay members of Bund in the Siberian reference, activity fluent of political exiled – members of Bund – in the ranks of Siberian organizations RSDWP is analyzed. Process of occurrence in Siberian region under the initiative of exiled of organizations of Bund in the beginning of the XXth century is considered. Are stated to the biography visible of members of Bund, brought the contribution to emancipating movement to the European part of Russia and in Siberia. In clause materials from archives of the Russian Federation are used.

Гарматны В.П. Аграрнае пытанне ў праграме Незалежнай Сялянскай Партыі (1924 – 1927)

Даследуецца аграрнае пытанне ў праграме Незалежнай Сялянскай Партыі (НСП) ў 1924 – 1927 гадах, паказаны яе падыходы да вырашэння зямельнага пытання. На працягу ўсяго перыяду існавання ІІ Рэчы Паспалітай (1921 – 1939) аграрнае пытанне было адным з самых злабадзённых, ад вырашэння якога залежыў далейшы лёс дзяржавы. Незалежная Сялянская Партыя прапанавала ўласны праект ажыццяўлення аграрных пераўтварэнняў, які быў занадта радыкальны і таму не знайшоў падтрымкі Сейма. Зроблена выснова, што партыя адыграла важную ролю ў сялянскім руху ІІ Рэчы Паспалітай, яе ідэі карысталіся сярод тагачаснага сялянства вялікай папулярнасцю.

AGRARIAN QUESTION IN THE PROGRAM OF INDEPENDENT PEASANT PARTY (1924 – 1927)

V. HARMATNY

The agrarian question in the program of Independent Peasant Party (IPP, 1924 – 1927) is studied, its positions to the solving of the agrarian problem are shown. During the whole period of II Rzeczpospolita (1921 – 1939) the agrarian question was one of the most important, which the future of the country depended on. The Independent Peasant Party proposed its own project of agrarian changes, which was very radical and wasn’t understood by the Sejm. The party played an important role in the peasant movement of II Rzeczpospolita, its ideas were popular among the peasantry of that period.

Бураков В.Н. Муниципализация жилищного фонда в БССР (1919 – 1929)

Рассматриваются основные направления жилищной политики советского правительства в сфере государственного фонда. Раскрыты исходные положения марксистско-ленинской концепции решения жилищной проблемы. Определено значение коммунального сектора в обеспечении нуждающихся граждан жильем. Дана характеристика нормативно-правовых актов, регулирующих порядок и результаты обобществления жилищного фонда, распределения жилплощади органами коммунального хозяйства. Отражены недостатки государственных органов в ходе обобществления части жилого сектора, также представлена реакция бывших владельцев муниципализированных домов. Подведены итоги образования государственного жилищного фонда и его роли в решении проблемы обеспеченности жильем нуждающихся граждан.

MUNICIPALIZATION OF HOUSING FACILITIES IN BSSR (1919 – 1929)

V. BURAKOV

Main directions of housing policy of the Soviet government in the sphere of state fund are considered. Initial propositions of Marxist-Leninist concept of the solution of housing problem are revealed. The significance of the municipal sector in providing housing for people who needed it is defined. Characteristics of normative legal acts is given, regulating the order and results of collectivization of housing facilities, distribution of living space by the bodies of communal services. Drawbacks of state bodies in collectivization of a part of dwelling sector are shown, as well as the reaction of former owners of municipalized houses. The formation of state housing facilities and its role in the solution of the problem of providing accommodation are summed up.

Марченко О.В. Русский эмигрантский меньшевизм в Германии в 1920-х – начале 1930-х годов и его идеология

Рассматривается деятельность представителей русского эмигрантского меньшевизма в Германии на протяжении 1920-х – начала 1930-х годов. Теоретиками левого и правого крыла данного течения были разработаны отличающиеся по ряду позиций программы по построению так называемой «новой» России, обусловленные идейными расхождениями. Анализируются воззрения идеологов русского меньшевизма относительно будущей формы государственно-политического устройства страны, а также комплекс предлагаемых ими мер по решению экономических проблем в области промышленности и сельского хозяйства. Особое внимание уделяется изучению специфики тактических приёмов борьбы с Советской властью представителей левого и правого крыла отмеченного течения и их внешнеполитической ориентации. Показаны основные направления деятельности сторонников Ю.О. Мартова в отношении утвердившихся в Германии и Италии фашистских режимов. Подчёркивается, что укрепление позиций Советской власти, отсутствие поддержки среди эмигрантской молодежи, идейные распри так и не позволили меньшевикам реализовать свои надежды и планы.

RUSSIAN EMIGRANT MENSHEVISM IN GERMANY IN THE 1920-S – THE BEGINNING OF THE 1930-S AND ITS IDEOLOGY

O. MARCHENKO

The activity of the representatives of Russian emigrant Menshevism in Germany in the 1920-s – the beginning of the 1930-s is examined. Divergence of views among the left and the right wings resulted in the fact that their theorists worked out different programmes of building the so-called «new» Russia. The views of the Russian menshevism ideologists on the future form of the state and political organization of the country as well as their views on solving economic problems in industry and agriculture are analyzed. Particular attention is paid to tactical forms of struggle of the representatives of the left and the right wings of Menshevism with the Soviet power as well as to their foreign-policy orientation. The main directions in the activity of Yu.O. Martov’s supporters, their attitude to the fascist regime in Germany and Italy are also examined. The reasons which prevented the Mensheviks to realize their plan are: consolidation of the Soviet power, lack of support among emigrant young people, divergence of views.

Сумко Е.В., Прокопенко Н.В. Основные направления деятельности Полоцкой уездной милиции и её обеспечение в 1921 – 1924 годах

Исследуются основные направления деятельности Полоцкой уездной милиции в 20-х годах прошлого столетия, формирование которой прошло несколько сложных и качественно разных этапов. Один из них – это период с 1921 по 1924 год, когда в связи с прекращением военных действий и освобождением территории Полоцкого уезда, а также с изменением экономической и политической обстановки происходит реорганизация правоохранительных органов, совершенствование организационных структур милиции, форм и методов работы по охране общественного порядка. Показан ряд особенностей, характерных для деятельности милиции пограничного Полоцкого уезда в 1921 – 1924 годах. Сделан вывод о том, что экономические преобразования в стране накладывали отпечаток и на работу милиции того времени.

MAIN ACTIVITIES OF POLOTSK DISTRICT MILITIA AND ITS PROVIDING IN 1921 – 1924

А. SUMKO, N. PROKOPENKO

Formation of Polotsk Soviet militia took place some difficult and qualitatively different stages. One of them is the period from 1921 to 1924, when in connection with the termination of military operations and release of the territory of the Polotsk district, and also change of an economic and political situation there is a reorganization of law enforcement agencies, improvement of organizational structures of militia, forms and methods of work on protection of public order. A number of peculiarities, characteristic for the activity of militia of frontier Polotsk district in 1921 – 1924 is shown. Conclusion is made, that economic transformations in the country also left their mark on the work of Polotsk militia.

Куракова И.Я. Функцыянаванне банкаўскіх устаноў на тэрыторыі Беларусі ў зонах дзейнасці нямецкіх цывільнай і ваеннай адміністрацый
(1941 – 1944)

Разглядаецца такі маладаследаваны аспект гісторыі Вялікай Айчыннай вайны, як дзейнасць германскіх акупацыйных банкаўскіх устаноў на тэрыторыі Беларусі 1941 – 1944 гадоў. Даследаванне гэтай праблематыкі асабліва неабходна для стварэння агульнай карціны гісторыі ваеннай паўсядзённасці, важны адбітак на якую накладвала фінансавая палітыка нямецкай цывільнай і ваеннай акупацыйных улад. На аснове аналіза раней не ўведзеных у навуковы зварот архіўных крыніц, галоўным чынам нямецкага паходжання, прапанавана рэканструкцыя захопніцкай палітыкі ў фінансавай сферы на прыкладзе практычнай дзейнасці банкаўскіх устаноў. Разглядаецца праблема забеспячэння банкаўскіх устаноў адпаведнымі кадрамі, вызначаюцца іх функцыі і метады работы ў ходзе правядзення крэдытных і ашчадных аперацый. Паказана, што германскія захопнікі мелі доўгачасовыя каланізатарскія фінансавыя планы ў акупаванай Беларусі, каардынацыяй і рэалізацыяй якіх займаліся банкаўскія ўстановы.

FUNCTIONING OF BANKING INSTITUTIONS ON THE TERRITORY OF BELARUS IN THE AREAS OF GERMAN CIVIL AND MILITARY ANDMINISTRATION (1941 – 1944)

I. KURAKOVA

Such a little investigated aspect of history of the Great Patriotic War as the activity of German occupation banking institutions on the territory of Belarus in 1941 – 1944 is studied. The research of this perspective is necessary for creation of an overall picture of the history of military everyday life, an important impact on which was left by financial policy of German civil and military occupation authorities. The reconstruction of the aggressive policy in the financial sector on the basis of practical activities of banking institutions is proposed and based on the analysis of previously not entered into scientific turn archival sources, mostly of German origin. The problem of providing banking institutions with corresponding staff is considered, and the methods of work in the course of credit and savings operations are defined. The research showed that German invaders had long–term financial plans in occupied Belarus. Banking institutions were ingaged in their coordination and implementation.

Кривуть В.И. Основные направления молодежной политики польских властей в межвоенный период

Впервые в современной белорусской историографии освещаются основные направления молодежной политики польских властей в межвоенный период. Раскрываются цели, содержание и ход официальных мероприятий в сфере военной подготовки, гражданского воспитания и внешкольного профессионального обучения молодого поколения межвоенного польского государства. Также рассматривается работа польских властей в области борьбы с безработицей среди молодежи. Анализируется законодательная база официальной молодежной политики, а также место и роль в ее реализации разного рода государственных и общественных структур – вооруженных сил, школы, местного самоуправления, молодежных союзов и объединений.

MAIN AREAS OF YOUTH POLICY OF POLISH AUTHORITIES IN THE INTERWAR PERIOD

V. KRIVUT

For the first time in modern Belarusian historiography the main areas of youth policy of the Polish authorities in the interwar period are outlined. The goals, content and conduct of official events in the field of military training, civic education and non-formal vocational training of young generation of interwar Polish state revealed. Also the work of the Polish authorities in the fight against youth unemployment is examined. The legal basis of official youth policy, and the place and role in the implementation of various government and public institutions – the armed forces, schools, local authorities, youth organizations and associations are analyzed.

Василицын А.Г. Взаимоотношения государства и Русской православной церкви в БССР в 1944 – 1953 годах: обзор современной отечественной историографии

Представлен обзор современной отечественной историографии взаимоотношений государства и Русской православной церкви в БССР в 1944 – 1953 годах. Рассмотрены основные направления и особенности изучения государственно-церковных отношений указанного периода. Показано, что вопрос освещался преимущественно в обобщающих публикациях и не выступал предметом комплексного исследования. Актуальными для изучения являются проблемы периодизации государственно-церковных отношений в условиях БССР, создания и деятельности аппарата уполномоченных Совета по делам РПЦ, организации церковного управления и религиозной жизни, репрессивной политики органов власти в отношении духовенства и верующих, влияния социально-экономических изменений в БССР на положение церкви в обществе. Сделан вывод о том, что в современной белорусской исторической науке проблематика государственно-церковных отношений только начинает разрабатываться, поэтому существует необходимость ее углубленного изучения.

MUTUAL RELATIONS OF THE STATE AND RUSSIAN ORTHODOX CHURCH IN BSSR IN 1944 – 1953: THE REVIEW OF THE MODERN HISTORIOGRAPHY OF OUR COUNTRY

A. VASILITSYN

The review of the modern domestic historiography of mutual relations of the state and Russian Orthodox Church in BSSR in 1944 – 1953s is presented. The basic directions and features of studying of state-church relations during the mentioned period are considered. It is noted that the question had been reported mainly in generalising publications and hadn’t been the subject of an integrated research. The urgent problems for studying are: periodization of state-church relations in the context of BSSR, creation and activity of the institute of representatives of the Council of Russian Orthodox Church affairs, peculiarities of the arrangement of church management and religious life, the repressive policy of the authorities concerning clergy and believers, influence of the social and economic changes in BSSR on the position of the church in society. The conclusion is the following: in modern science of history of Belarus the subject matter of state-church relations is only at the beginning of its development, and there is a necessity of its profound study.

Король В.Л. Миротворческая деятельность Русской православной церкви (1949 – 1991): историография проблемы

Исследуется миротворческая деятельность Русской православной церкви во второй половине ХХ века. Анализируются труды историков различных научных направлений, стран и периодов по рассматриваемому вопросу. Богатый историографический материал позволяет объективно оценить важнейшие аспекты участия Церкви в борьбе за мир и разоружение, сопоставить точки зрения различных авторов по проблеме. Описываются основные направления в историографии проблемы, рассмотренные в важнейших работах зарубежных и отечественных исследователей, их взгляды и выводы, касающиеся темы исследования. Сделан вывод, что, несмотря на широкое освещение различных аспектов церковного миротворчества в трудах отечественных и зарубежных исследователей, данная тема ещё не исчерпана. Особенно актуально дальнейшее исследование миротворческой деятельности Русской православной церкви на территории Беларуси во второй половине ХХ века.

PEACEMAKING ACTIVITY OF RUSSIAN ORTHODOX CHURCH (1949 – 1991): HISTORIOGRAPHY OF THE PROBLEM

V. KOROL

Peacemaking activity of Russian orthodox church in the second half of the ХХth century is studied. The works of historians of different scientific schools, contries and periods on the considered issue are analyzed. Rich historiographic material allows to objectively estimate the most important aspects of participation of the Church in the struggle for peace and disarmament, to compare different authors’ points of view on the given problem. Main directions in the historiography of the problem are described, which were considered in the most significant works of foreign and domestic researchers, their points of view and conclusions, touching upon the issue of the research, are presented. Conclusion is made, that despite wide coverage of different aspects of church peacemaking activity in the works of domestic and foreign scientists the given issue has not been settled.

Пушкін І.А. Дзейнасць інстытутаў дзяржаўнай улады па рэгуляванні міжнацыянальных адносін у Рэспубліцы Беларусь (1991 – 2010)

канд. гіст. навук, дац. І.А. ПУШКІН
(Магілёўскі дзяржаўны ўніверсітэт харчавання)

Упершыню ў беларускай гістарыяграфіі аналізуецца стварэнне і дзейнасць інстытутаў дзяржаўнай улады па рэгуляванні міжнацыянальных адносін у Рэспубліцы Беларусь. Даследаваны і прааналізаваны працэс заканадаўчага забеспячэння праў нацыянальных супольнасцяў. У 1990-х гадах органамі прадстаўнічай улады была прынятая нарматыўна-прававая база, якая стварыла ўмовы для развіцця культур нацыянальных супольнасцей. У сярэдзіне 1990-х гадоў быў створаны орган выканаўчай дзяржаўнай улады для забеспячэння ўмоў захавання этнічнай самабытнасці і выканання заканадаўства ў сферы рэалізацыі праў нацыянальных супольнасцей. Вылучаны і ахарактарызаваны тры этапы ў дзейнасці дзяржаўных органаў па рэгуляванні міжнацыянальных адносін у Рэспубліцы Беларусь. Зроблена выснова аб прыняцці рашэнняў пасля ўсебаковага абмеркавання, з улікам агульнанацыянальных інтарэсаў, грамадска-палітычнай і эканамічнай сітуацыі ў краіне. У выніку ў беларускім грамадстве склаліся стабільныя, канструктыўныя міжнацыянальныя адносіны.

ACTIVITIES OF THE INSTITUTIONS OF STATE POWER ON REGULATION OF INTERETHNIC RELATIONS IN THE REPUBLIC OF BELARUS (1991 – 2010)

I. PUSHKIN

Establishment and activities of the institutions of state power on regulation of interethnic relations and solution of national group problems of the Republic of Belarus are analyzed. Procedure for legislative security of national minorities’ rights is studied and analyzed. Regulatory and legal basis that created favorable conditions for developing cultures of ethnic groups and meeting their ethnic cultural needs was adopted by governmental bodies in the 1990s. The body of executive and state power was established in the middle of the 1990s to provide conditions for keeping ethnic originality and complying with the legislation in the sphere of realization of ethnic group rights. Three stages in the activities of state bodies on interethnic relations regulation are described in the Republic of Belarus. A conclusion has been drawn about making decisions after comprehensive discussion with due regards for nationwide interests, existing political and economic circumstances in the country. As a result, in the Belarusian society stable, constructive international relations have been established.